Basic Concept of Evaluation, Testing, and Test

By: Prof. Drs. H. Junaidi Mistar, M.Pd., Ph.D.
Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analysing, and interpreting data to determine the extent to which students achieve the instructional objectives. Testing is a way of measuring the students’ mastery of the instructional objectives for the sake of evaluation. Test is the instrument used for testing.
Types of Test
•Based on Its Purpose:

1.  Selection Test: is a test based on which a decision of whether a candidate is to be accepted or not for a certain learning program is made.

2.  Placement Test: is a test administered in order to place a student in his/her appropriate level before a learning program starts.

3.  Pre-Test: is a test administered to measure the students’ performance in the beginning of each instructional unit.

4.  Formative Test: is a test administered to measure learning progress during an instruction.

5.  Diagnostic Test: a test administered to diagnose learning difficulties during an instruction.

6.  Summative Test: a test administered to measure students’ achievement of instructional objectives at the end of a program.

Based on Its Content:

1.  Language aptitude test : a test designed to measure learners’ potentials for learning a new language.

2.  Language proficiency test: is a test designed to measure learners’ linguistic knowledge and skills apart from trainings they may have got.

3.  Achievement test: is a test designed to measure the extent to which students achieve the instructional objectives.

Based on the Designer

1.  Teacher-made test: is a test designed by classroom teachers to be used for their own classes.

2.  Standardized test: a test designed by a team of experts in which its development, administration, scoring, and interpretation are conducted based certain standards.

Based on the Way to Complete the Task

1.  Verbal test: is a test that requires students to provide verbal responses, either orally or written.

2.  Performance test: a test that requires students to perform tasks.

Based on Its Approach

1.  Descrete test: is a test that focusses its measurement on one language aspect (E.g.: grammar or vocabulary) or one language skill (listening or reading) only.

2.  Integrative test: is  a test that measures students’ mastery of more than one language aspects or language skills at a time.

  For example: cloze test, C-test, dictation.

Based on Its Scoring

1.  Objective test: a test in which different equally competent scorers may assign equal scores. Examples:

  a) short-answer item

  b) completion

  c) true-false

  d) matching

  e) multiple-choice

2.  Subjective test: a test in which the scores are affected by the scorers’ opinion, perception, and psychological states. Examples:

  a) Essay question:

       – Restricted response essay

       – Extended response essay

  b) Composition

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