Task I

Remember that an independent clause by itself is a complete sentence, but a depend­ent clause by itself is an incomplete sentence. Write Indep. Next to the complete sen­tences and put a period (.) after them. Write Dep. next to the incomplete sentences. The first two have been done for you as examples.

  1. Globalization means more travel for businessmen and women.
  2. As business executives fly around the globe to sell their companies’ products and services
  3. Jet lag affects most long-distance travellers
  4. Which is simply the urge to sleep at inappropriate times
  5. During long journeys through several time zones, the body’s inner clock is disrupted
  6. For some reason, travel from west to east causes greater jet lag than travel from east to west
  7. Also, changes in work schedules can cause jet lag
  8. When hospital nurses change from a day shift to a night shift, for example
  9. Although there is no sure way to prevent jet lag
  10. There are some ways to minimize it
  11. Because jet lag is caused at least partially by loss of sleep, not just a change in the time of sleep
  12. A traveller should plan to arrive at his or her destination as late as possible
  13. Upon arriving, he or she should immediately go to bed
  14. Then the traveller should start to live in the new time zone immediately
  15. Even when the traveller arrives early in the morning and cannot go to bed immediately






Task II





Task 3

Form compound sentences by adding a second independent clause to each independent clause. Be sure to add a complete clause containing a subject and a verb. Circle the conjunctive adverb and add punctuation. The first one has been done for you as an example.

  1. 1.             The college campus is located in the center of the city; therefore, it is very easy to get there by public transportation
  2. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe began expanding about 13.7 billion years ago moreover____________________________________________________
  3. Students must pay their tuition and fees before they register for classes otherwise____________________________________________________,
  4. Scientists predict that intelligent life exists somewhere in the universe however_________________________________________________
  5. Mars probes have photographed rocks with water markings on them nevertheless_____________________________________________
  6. My roommate scored high on the English placement test as a result
  7. Tuition and fees increase every year for example _____________________ ___________________________________________________________________
  8. The class thought the teacher would give a test last Friday instead_______________ ___________________________________________________________________



Task IV

Use what you have learned about forming compound sentences to improve the fol­lowing mini-essay, which contains many short, simple sentences. Combine sen­tences wherever possible. Try to use each of the three methods at least once. There are many possible ways to combine sentences.


1A robot is a mechanical device that can perform boring, dangerous, and difficult tasks. 2First of all, robots can perform repetitive tasks without becoming tired or bored. 3They are used in automobile factories to weld and paint. 4Robots can also function in hostile environments. 5They are useful for exploring the ocean bottom as well as deep outer space. 6Finally, robots can perform tasks requiring pinpoint accuracy. 7ln the operating room, robotic equipment can assist the surgeon. 8For instance, a robot can kill a brain tumor. 9lt can operate on a fetus with great precision.

10The field of artificial intelligence is giving robots a limited ability to think and to make decisions. “However, robots cannot think conceptually. 12Robots cannot function independently. 13Humans have to program them. 14They are useless. [Use otherwise to combine sentences 13 and 14.] 15Therefore, humans should not worry that robots will take over the world—at least not yet.


A complex sentence

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clause(s). In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other. We place the more important idea in the independent clause and the less important idea in the dependent clause.



Task V A

Step 1 Underline the independent clause of each sentence with a solid line.

Step 2 Underline the dependent clause with a broken line. One sentence has

two dependent clauses.

Step 3 Write Sub. above the subordinator.

  1. Because the cost of education is rising, many students must work part-lime.
  2. When students from other countries come to the United States, they often suffer from culture shock.
  3. Because financial aid is difficult to obtain, many students have to work part-time.
  4. Please tell me where the student union is.
  5. Engineers, who have an aptitude for drafting and mechanics, must also be artistic and imaginative.
  6. While the contractor follows the blueprint, the engineer checks the construction in progress.
  7. Since the blueprint presents the details of the engineer’s plans, it must be interpreted accurately by the contractor.
  8. Students should declare a major by their junior year unless they have not made up their minds.
  9. Even though students declare a major now, they can change-it later.

10. The government says that inflation is holding steady.

11. Economists are concerned that the rate of inflation will double if the government does not take immediate steps to control it.


Task V B

B.  Step 1 Add a logical independent clause to each of the dependent clauses. Step 2 Punctuate each sentence correctly.

The first one has been done for you as an example.

  1. I cannot register for classes___________________until I pay my tuition.
  2. Unless I take 12 units each term__________________________________
  3. __________________________________________that computer engineering is a popular major.
  4. _____________________________________,______who taught this course last term?
  5. Because I had to look for a part-time job____________­­­­­­­­­­­____________________
  6. ___________________________________if I want to get to school on time.
  7. __________________________________________whether I should take advanced linguistic.
  8. __________________________________________whom I met at the math club meeting last week.
  9. When I left my country_________________________________________
  10. __________________________________________that my college adviser recommends.



A Compound-complex sentence has at least three clauses, at least two of which are independent. You can use almost any combination of dependent and independent clauses. Just be sure that there is at least one independent clause. In the following examples, independent clauses are underlined with a solid line and dependent clauses with a dotted line.


Punctuate the compound part of a compound-complex sentence like a compound sentence; that is, use a semicolon/comma combination (sentence 1), or put a comma before a coordinator joining two independent clauses (sentences 2, 3, and 4).

Punctuate the complex part like a complex sentence. With adverb clauses, put a comma after a dependent adverb clause (sentence 2) but not before it (sentence 3). With noun clauses (sentence 4), use no commas.


Task VI

Punctuate the following sentences.

Step 1 Underline the independent clauses with a solid line and the dependent clauses with a broken line. Step 2 Add commas and/or semicolons as necessary.

  1. Information and communication technology is reaching out to help people in the poorest countries improve their lives for example fishermen on the Bay of Bengal can now receive online weather reports that tell them when it is safe to go out.
  2. Furthermore, when the fishermen bring in a boatload of fish they can find out the current market prices for their fish, which will help them bargain with die middlemen to whom they sell their catch.
  3. The cost of the cheapest computer is at least $200 and since this is more than an individual fisherman can afford several fishing villages together can pool their money and buy one to share.
  4. The worldwide reach of the Internet is also providing employment opportunities in developing countries and as greater numbers of people learn the technology these opportunities will expand.
  5. When you call your U.S. bank you may find yourself speaking to a customer service representative who is sitting in the Philippines or Puerto Rico and when you need technical support for your home computer you will probably get help from a programmer in New Delhi.

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